There is a growing demand on the existing water resources which includes River Water Sources, Precipitation and Ground Water Sources. Thus the primary objective of a planned development is to provide adequate, reliable and good quality potable water. For this purpose, standards of water requirements were developed by national agencies.
It is very important to calculate the water requirements accurately to avoid failure in water planning, management and conservation. Standard Water Requirements are calculated per person per day. The basic factors that influence these requirements are:
- Human Consumption
- Miscellaneous Activities
Other factors that also affect the requirements are:
- Thermal and Physiological Stress
- General State of Hygiene and Health
- Climatic Conditions
Under normal conditions, keeping in mind daily basic activities, water requirement per person per day is shown as:
*(where l/p/d = liters per person per day)
This totals up to 135 l/p/d.
This data is used as a reference to create more standards for various different configurations such as:
- Residential Buildings
- Cinemas/Concert Halls/ Theatres
- Commercial Offices
|Building Type||Details||Comments||Water Requirement (per head)|
|Residential||for population of 20,000 to 1,00,000||with full flushing system|
|population >1,00,000||with full flushing system|
|service connection||no flushing system|
|standpost connection||no flushing system||40|
|Commercial||-||with flushing system||45|
|Factories||-||with no bath||30|
|Cinemas/ Theatres/ Concert Halls||-||-||15|
|Hospitals||utpo 100 beds||with laundry||340|
|More than 100 beds||with laundry||450|
In India, the average domestic water consumption is 4.1% of the total water use. The Bureau of Indian Standards states that these standard requirements vary depending on several factors.
These standard water requirements are useful for:
- Water Demand Estimation
- Water Management
- Water Conservation
- Reducing Water Wastage
- The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)-www.bis.org.in
- Ministry of Environment and Forests and Climate Change (MoEF)-www.envfor.nic.in
- Data collected from Manual available here.
- WHO Minimum water requirements during emergencies- Click Here.